Список вспомогательных фраз (Vocabulary for Interpretation)


The extract under consideration tells a story of a young man who...

The fragment under interpretation (study, analysis) represents a piece of emotive prose...

The present story tells the tragedy of the poor family...

This is the surface plot of the story.

The story (episode) represents the conflict (collision) between...

The action dramatically develops and achieves the culminating point...

The basic theme of “The Forsyte Saga” may be defined as the life of the English middle class at the end and after the Victorian epoch.

There are two more (several) by-themes in this piece of prose:...

The by-themes in this story are as follows:...

The main problem may be defined (formulated, capsulised) in the following way:...    

In the story (novel, play, poem) the writer (playwright, poet)    (dwells upon, raises, touches upon)(the problem of…)
to reveal (convey, express) the idea of... (that)...
The idea is revealed ...in the final passage..., in the episode where...in concluding sentence... .
The idea (gist, message, epitome, the main line of thought) can be stated as follows:...

to carry (reveal) the author's message

The writer's viewpoint is expressed (revealed, implied) by...

The author's ... (vision (perception) of life...  world outlook...) transmits to the reader his own philosophy of life (his ethic and moral code)
... is depicted (described, portrayed) by the writer by means of...

The general (prevailing, predominant) mood (tone, slant) of the extract is humorous, satirical, lyrical, pathetic, gloomy and dramatic, cheerful, melodramatic, pessimistic or optimistic, emotional or dry and matter-of-fact etc.

The extract... (may be divided into (split into)...falls into ...) 3 logically complete parts.
They can be entitled as...

Every passage (part) has a key-sentence.

The suggested extract represents a 3rd Person Narration (a 1st Person Narration) interlaced (interwoven, intermingled) with a dialogue, character drawings, a description, a satirical portrayal of society, a historical event, the inner monologue of the leading character, with the author's digression where he speculates upon the problem of...

The author's digression reveals his vision of life...

The writer digresses from the plot of the story to reveal (convey) his attitude to... (his view on...)

The narration is done in the 1st (the 3rd) person.

The main character is the narrator of his own feelings, thoughts and intentions.

The story-teller portrays his characters by means of a convergence of SDs, such as...

The portrayal of literary personages is done skilfully (masterfully, with great skill).

The description (portrayal, narration) may be vivid, convincing, powerful, meaningful, highly emotional, unemotional, suggestive etc.

The 4th part is focused on John Smith.

The author focuses (his attention) on the character's inner world.

The author depicts the life of...

The subject of depiction in the 2nd part is...

The passage opens with the atmosphere of growing suspense (excitement, nervousness, fright etc.)

The paragraph    (abounds in..., is abundant in...) slang set-phrases.

The writer makes an abundant use of…

The compositional structure of the extract (fragment) is based on parallelism.

Parallelism (parallel constructions are) is accompanied by anaphora (framing etc.)

These paragraphs stand in sharp contrast to each other.

The paragraph is built in sharp contrast to the following one. The contrast is reflected (manifested) in the language, both in syntactical and lexical means.

The paragraph is in full accord (accordance) with the preceding one as far as its idea goes.

The author (story-teller) draws a gloomy (majestic, miserable etc.) picture.

The writer (uses...makes use of...employs...resorts to...) (common colloquial vocabulary...juridical terminology (law terms)...).

to give the narration (to lend) more authenticity and objectivity

to lend the story a humorous ring

to make the story sound melodramatic (sentimental etc.)

It testifies to the writer's mastery (skill).

This detail (fact, expression, device)    (is suggestive of ...,is highly informative)...

It suggests that...

It helps the reader guess (realize, come to the conclusion etc.)

It leaves much for the reader's guesswork.

The syntactical pattern of the sentence (paragraph) is suggestive (informative, meaningful).

The syntactical pattern (structure, design) is peculiar (is broken, is violated...)

He resorts to high-flown (elevated) words to convey the inner tragedy of his personage.

There is a discrepancy between the bookish, elevated vocabulary and the trivial (banal) situation with ordinary men doing everyday things (or the daily routine of ordinary men).

It usually produces a humorous (ironical) effect.

It reveals the writer's ironical attitude to...

It is used as a means of irony.

The writer makes use of various language means to depict (portray, convey, reveal etc.)

The author digresses from the thread of narration (the topic of story).

To pursue his aim the author employs (resorts to, adheres to, uses).

The author converses with the reader as if he has an interlocutor before him. (The reader is involved into the events of the text.)

The author lays bare (exposes, unmasks, condemns, touches upon, dwells on, delineates, highlights, stresses, underlines, ridicules, mocks at, accentuates)...

The author lays (puts, places) emphasis (stress) on...

The writer carries the idea to the mind of the reader through...

The SD is the indicator (signal) of the character's emotions (emotional tension, mixed feelings).

The SD stresses (underlines, discloses, accentuates, emphasizes, is meant to point out, throws light on, highlights, adds to, contributes to, hightens, enhances, intensifies, gives an insight into, explains and clarifies, serves to provide the text with additional emphases).

The satirical (humorous, ironical) effect is hightened (enhanced, intensified, augmented) by a convergence of SD and EM in the paragraph.

The SD contributes (adds) to the same effect (the effect desired by the author, the effect the author strives for, a more colourful and emotional presentation of the scene).

The SD adds importance to the indication of the place (time, manner) of action is suggestive (illustrative, expressive) (it indicates where and when the scene is laid).

The SD is suggestive (illustrative, expressive, explicit, implicit) of...

The SD and EM are linked and interwoven to produce a joint impression (are aimed at achieving the desired effect).

The SD wants (needs) interpreting, decoding. It prepares the ground for the next sentence (paragraph).

The SD makes explicit what has been implied before (lends an additional expressiveness). It is implicit in nature, makes the utterance arresting, enables the author to convey the feelings and emotions of the character, reveals the character's low (high) social position, indicates the step the character occupies in the social ladder, serves best to specify the author's (character's) attitude to.

There is no direct indication of that. It is understood indirectly through (perceived through)...

The title (SD) is highly informative (symbolic, emotive, emotionally coloured, emphatic).

The SD suggests a definite kind of informational design.

It is to the word "……" that prominence must be given. If we analyse the intonational pattern of the sentence we see that to the word "……" is given a strong (heavy) stress.

Looking deeper into the arrangement of the utterance we come to the conclusion that...

The reader traces the marked partiality of the writer for his personage.

In order to impose (impress) on the reader his attitude towards the character the author employs...

Leading gradually up to the hidden idea that he is pursuing the writer makes the reader feel...

The most convincing proof of the idea is...

We'll discuss the implication the following sentence suggests...

Hints and suggestive remarks (implications and suggestions) are scattered all over the text.

On a more careful observation it becomes obvious that...

It is worth while going a little deeper in (to) the language texture.

The idea is hidden between the lines in order to grasp the author's idea.

The word (sentence) is charged (loaded, burdened) with implication (connotation).

The SD suggests a touch of authenticity (plausibility) to the narrated events (it makes the reader believe that the narrated events have actually taken place in real life).

The episode is presented through the perception of the character (this type of presenting a picture of life as if perceived by a character that creates the so-called effect of immediate presence).

The SD serves as a clue to the further development of the action.

The plot unfolds (itself) dynamically (slowly).

Words and word combinations suggested for reproducing dialogues in narrative form.
to think that to believe that
to wonder why (when, how, where) to understand
to point out to admit
to persist to doubt
to stress to confirm
to insist to reassure
to suggest to wish to know
to reject to assure
to expect that to reproach
to deny to consider (regard)
to suppose that to urge
to be certain that to object to